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Mander Organs


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  1. It just so happens Colin that I am presently carefully reading your extremely informative article “The Tonal Structure of Principal Stops”, in order to gain a better understanding of harmonics as they apply to organ pipes. It is significant that Hans Henny Jahnn’s work as a writer thinker and organ builder was for most of his life heavily bound up with his theorising about the ‘harmonic’ structure of the universe. I have yet to digest the enormous amount of material in German that exists concerning Jahnn and his relationship to the Orgelbewegung, but it is appears that theorising about harmonics, both in a practical, acoustic sense and in a philosophical one, strongly influenced his groundbreaking restoration of the Schnitger organ in St Jakobi Hamburg in 1925, a milestone in the movement’s history. The aspect of the Orgelbewegung that all its adherents subscribed to was that on a 19th century Romantic organ (Schweitzer, however, exempted Cavaillé Coll from this criticism) the inner parts of a work by Bach were to all intents and purposes inaudible. The ‘discovery’ that they sounded as clear as a bell on an instrument by Schnitger was therefore a revelation. But you are clearly the expert here in explaining why.
  2. I certainly think there are parallels between what was happening in Germany in the 19th century and in other countries. Just as the Pre-Raphaelites and devotees of Arts and Crafts in Britain looked back to the Middle Ages, so artists in Germany, notably the Nazarene movement (the subject of part of George Eliot’s novel Middlemarch) also looked back to that time. It should be remembered that the ‘rediscovery’ of Bach, starting with Forkel at the beginning of the 19th century, coincided with the occupation of Germany. As the 19th century progressed, Bach became more and more identified in (especially Protestant) Germany with national pride in ‘German’ values of workmanship, piety and devotion to spiritual and Christian values, untainted by Romantic excess, although Romanticism was of course, the context in which he was first ‘discovered’. Catholic areas of Germany saw the rise of Caecilianism, once again starting as a kind of Romantic devotion to music of the past, this time to the pure and uncluttered polyphony of Palestrina. Wagner himself was a devotee. The 19th century also saw the subject of musicology become established in German universities, a science (Musikwissenschaft) that could take its place alongside other respectable subjects. Thus began the publication of the music of old masters such as Samuel Scheidt, Schütz, Praetorius, etc. In 1891 the monumental series Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst began to be published. Once scholars and musicians came face to face with editions unencumbered by added editorial markings, the questions were obviously posed: how was this music performed, on what kind of instruments and how did it sound? Side by side with these developments, idealistic youth movements were springing up in Germany. The most important of these was the ‘Wandervogel’, founded by a teacher at a grammar school in the Berlin suburb of Steglitz in 1896. The movement emphasised rambling in the countryside, back-to-nature living, self-responsibilty and the spirit of adventure. The Wandervogel and its counterpart, the Jugendmusikbewegung, also ‘rediscovered’ the German Folk Song, at the same time as Cecil Sharp and Vaughan Williams were collecting English folk songs . The movement also contributed to the revival of the recorder, since it was easy to carry on rambles. All this was happening while Arnold Dolmetsch was pursuing his studies and researches into old instruments. It is interesting to compare the English and German versions of the article on the recorder. The English version gives far more information on its revival in Germany (although I cannot, of course, vouch for its accuracy)! “Among the earliest ensembles to begin use of recorders in the 20th century was the Bogenhausen Artists' Band which from 1890–1939 used antique recorders and other instruments to play music of all ages, including arrangements of classical and romantic music. Nonetheless, the recorder was considered primarily an instrument of historical interest. The eventual success of the recorder in the modern era is often attributed to Arnold Dolmetsch. While he was responsible for broadening interest in the United Kingdom beyond the small group of early music specialists, Dolmetsch was not solely responsible for the recorder's broader revival. On the continent his efforts were preceded by those of musicians at the Brussels Conservatoire (where Dolmetsch received his training), and by the German Bogenhauser Künstlerkapelle. Also in Germany, the work of Willibald Gurlitt, Werner Danckerts and Gustav Scheck proceeded quite independently of the Dolmetsches.” The Bärenreiter Encyclopedia states: “The instrument maker Peter Harlan (1898–1966), the “father of the recorder”, played a major role in the recorder renaissance. Harlan, himself a former member of the Wandervogel, saw the perfect means to realize the ideal of a return to nature and truth in the instruments of the sixteenth century, particularly with regard to recorders, fiddles, gambas and clavichords. In the mid-1920s Bärenreiter, probably through an introduction by Willibald Gurlitt, made contact with Harlan. In the following years he produced the range of Bärenreiter recorders of different sizes which sold for about 4 Reichsmarks in his workshop.” Which brings us neatly back to the Orgelbewegung. For it was Gurlitt who, in 1921, as one of the early proponents of the Orgelbewegung, had the groundbreaking 'Praetorius organ' built in the Institute of Music in Freiburg im Breisgau by Oscar Walcker, based on 1619 designs by Praetorius.
  3. A chance comment in a recent post on this site has prompted me to read extensively on this topic in recent days. I come at it not only as an organist, but also as a Germanist. Having read through various threads on this forum, notably the one in 2007 regarding the immediate postwar period in northern Germany, as well as some of the extensive literature available, I am struck by the fact that the origins of the movement seem to lie, not in the initiatives of organ builders in Germany, but rather in the general artistic and cultural movements at the end of the 19th century, which then influenced organists, writers and even theologians. It seems to me that the Orgelbewegung was actually quite a multi-faceted affair, with major disagreements between its leading protagonists. I’m thinking here, among others, of Albert Schweitzer, Christhard Mahrenholz and that extraordinary genius (novelist, playwright, organist, composer, publisher and organ builder) Hans Henny Jahnn. There were strong ideological currents too: rather as the Green movement had its strong proponents in the NSDAP, but also its antithesis in left-wing circles, so the Orgelbewegung too was seen by National Socialist ideologues as reflecting values at the heart of German culture (information that has come to light since 2000 regarding the celebrated musicologist H.H. Eggebrecht is highly disturbing), whilst Jahnn was a pacifist and animal rights supporter who was denounced and persecuted by the Nazis and went into exile. My point in all this is that the history of the Orgelbewegung may have been somewhat misrepresented, if not misunderstood. Organ builders surely picked up the new trends and commissions which were driven by cultural, artistic and ideological movements, rather than taking the initiiative themselves. So before organists and others today talk about the Orgelbewegung, they perhaps first need to undertake an extensive exploration of just what this movement (or movements) really was (were) before referring to such and such an instrument as representative of that movement. Unfortunately I am not convinced that anyone has yet undertaken a really comprehensive study of the movement. The oft quoted paper by Lawrence Phelps, for example, does not seem to mention Jahnn at all. It seems that studies of various aspects of the movement are scattered in books, articles and theses across the academic world, but that no-one has yet attempted a major thorough-going account. If anyone knows of one I should be most grateful if they would let me know!
  4. As I recall, this discussion was originally about attendances at organ recitals. Most organ recitals are held in places of worship, and attendance is subject to the organisers reaching those who may be interested in listening to organ music and convincing them that the experience will be worthwhile. Since the vast majority of the population do not have any idea what a pipe organ is, they are unlikely to want to attend an organ recital. Outside the hardcore devotees there has to be some special factor which will persuade them to attend. One of those factors can be the local community’s relationship with their local parish church, even if they are not regular worshippers. Spain is a case in point. A few years ago I attended the inauguration of a newly restored baroque organ in the town of Nava del Rey, near Valladolid. The recital was given by one of Spain/s leading organists, Juan de la Rubia. The church was packed to the gills. I would estimate the audience numbered around 1000. The population of Nava del Rey is 2100. Whole families attended. There were even babies in prams! https://www.joaquinlois.com/en/reinaugurado-el-organo-de-nava-del-rey/ The situation of organs and organists in Spain is far, far worse than in the UK. Many organs were destroyed during the Civil War, and there must be thousands of old instruments literally rotting in churches across the country. Organists are rarely paid. So how does a church suddenly magic a large audience for an organ recital out of thin air? The answer, I think, lies in the relationship between the community and the Church in Spain. Whilst there is a continuing anti-clerical tendency amongst a minority of the population, Spanish community and culture are still entwined with religious festivals, processions and fiestas. If the local parish priest wants to promulgate a particular project, he can call upon an army of volunteers to publicise it, largely by word of mouth and the grapevine. (That, incidentally, is why Spanish funerals can be attended by hundreds, even though burials normally take place the day after the deceased passed away). Attendance at the organ recital in Nava del Rey was probably due as much to civic pride and a sense of obligation as to a love of organ music. Spanish church attendance has fallen substantially in recent decades, but the masses will still turn out for special occasions. Those ties between the church and the local community still exist in many countries. In Germany, people pay a percentage of their taxes to the Catholic or Lutheran churches unless they opt out. During a recent stay in the Naples region of Italy I was astonished at the reverence still paid to the church by the local community, so much so that many were prepared to attend mass every day during May in honour of the Virgin Mary. Those ties used to exist in this country. No longer. Few people in the UK have any idea what a parish priest is, or who he or she is, let alone an organ. Decades of political correctness have indoctrinated the population with the idea that Christianity is a weird cult and that anyone who professes their faith is a threat to society. Indeed, I have heard countless church organists proudly proclaiming that that they are atheists! Talk about biting the hand that feeds you! Little wonder that when the moment comes, and a church and an organist have organised an organ recital, trying to drum up an audience is like shouting into the wind.
  5. I would contend that, given the right organ and the right acoustic, this is refuted by the first page (notably bars 5 and 11) of the Final of Vierne’s Third Symphony alone.
  6. Yet it is precisely the Proms which present another image of classical music in this country. In 2010 there was an average audience of 4,000 for each of the 76 concerts held in the Albert Hall. Were the BBC to engage an artist such as Olivier Latry at a normal evening Prom start time of 7.30, and publicise the concert appropriately, and then broadcast it on TV, they could do an unparalleled service to the cause of organ music. A source of great mystery to me is why our august organ institutions, to one of which I pay £110 per year in subscriptions, carry so little weight in this regard. I do not blame the concert going community in this country, I blame the classical musical establishment. They seem to have decided that the organ is a rather niche and slightly sinister instrument with unwelcome religious associations, unworthy of comparison with ‘mainstream’ instruments, such as the piano or violin. Other countries have recently invested huge sums in new, state of the art concert halls with massive and extremely expensive organs that inspire and entrall. Perhaps if and when we finally get our new London world class concert hall we will also get an organ which will hold its own with those in Paris and Hamburg.
  7. “A fantastic night for the Brooklyn Diocese: Dedicatory Recital played by Olivier Latry On October 18, 2013 Olivier Latry played the dedicatory recital after Bishop Nicholas Anthony Di Marzio (The Seventh Bishop of the Brooklyn Diocese) blessed the organ. Olivier Latry is the organist at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. He is one of the greats of the great organists of our time. This organ recital was attended by over 750 paying people. Some people even flew in from Europe and many came from all over the country. They believed in the parish. Many contributed many times over the years and wanted to be part of this pipe organ’s rebirth. None would miss it for the world.” It can be done!
  8. I actually find it utterly bizarre that the BBC should have organised this organ recital on a Sunday morning, in the full knowledge that literally thousands of church organists up and down the land would give their eye teeth to attend a recital by Olivier Latry, which they might have done for £5 if they had been free to do so. In view of the recent fire at Notre Dame it is even more reprehensible. I’m afraid, though, that the BBC is an enemy of all things organ and Christian. Any organ recital at the Proms is an extremely rare event, in spite of the fact that they have an enormous and powerful instrument worth millions in situ. I detest the BBC and all its works. The sooner the licence fee is abolished and replaced with a subscription service the better. I will then spend my £150 on an annual trip to Paris to hear great organs played live by great organists. And for £10 a month I can hear whattever music I want, when I want, with a subscription to Apple Music or the like.
  9. If my memory serves me correctly, there is an Aria by Rawsthorne in this volume: https://www.kevinmayhew.com/148-interludes.html
  10. https://lyon.catholique.fr/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Document-officiel-nomination-organistes.pdf The above document makes it clear that, in the diocese of Lyons at least, it is the parish which employs the organist and which is responsible for remunerating him or her.
  11. Who pays the organists in France? (If they are paid at all!)
  12. I agree wholeheartedly with Vox Humana regarding tempo. When learning a new piece I usually feel the need, after I have learnt the notes, to listen to as many different recordings as I can, something which is now quite straightforward with a subscription to a service like Apple Music. I am nearly always surprised by the range of tempos. In a few cases, a piece may be played by the fastest player at almost twice the speed of the slowest. I often wonder if it was actually possible to play Bach at the tempi adopted by many current performers, given the accounts in 18th century literature of the heaviness and stiffness of the action of many organs then.
  13. A mouth controlled device already exists. It is used by parachutists to take photos. You plug it into an Airturn page turner. The device is placed between the teeth and you bite it to turn the page. I’ve got one and it works. It’s useful for home recording. I wouldn’t want to use it in church or for a recital as it becomes wearing after a while and you would look ridiculous.
  14. The Ovation has its origin in Classical Antiquity. It came second only to a Triumph, granted to returning victorious generals. Whilst the Bible gives us authority to praise God with clapping, singing and the playing of musical instruments, there seems to be no biblical justification for doing the same for visiting organists in a church. The following article from the New York Times gives an interesting insight into the origin and nature of the modern standing ovation: https://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/21/theater/theater-the-tyranny-of-the-standing-ovation.html
  15. Colin, you may already be aware of this paper which reproduces and translates every known 18th century quote relating to J.S. Bach’s preferences regarding temperament. http://www.huygens-fokker.org/docs/Kroesbergen_Bach_Temperament.pdf Particularly interesting is the evidence that Werkmeister changed his opinions about temperament and at the end of his life had come to prefer equal temperament.
  16. I think there’s a wider point to be made here, and it concerns the promises that are constantly made regarding technology and the failure to deliver them. I remember the twin claims of the ‘paperless office’ and the computers that were going to develop exponentially and overtake the capacity and abilities of the human brain. Yet IT still often fails to deliver - score writing programmes are a case in point: you would think that after decades of development you would be able to just tell your computer what you want it to do, but instead you often have to spend hours doing detective work to solve minor problems of layout or note entry. But perhaps these are human failings rather than technological problems. Obtaining and using books and sheet music is a case in point. Years ago there was a hope that technology would make books and music available to all at low cost. What a disappointment! Academic books are locked away behind pay walls, unavailable to those who do not have institutional subscriptions unless they pay ridiculous sums of money for even short articles. You would think that doing away with the process of typesetting (now done by authors themselves who have to submit their work in tightly specified formats!), printing, binding, marketing, delivery, etc. would make books cheaper, but I regularly have to forgo the luxury of reading an academic work on some aspect of music because I refuse the pay vast sums for the privilege. I count myself lucky however. A great number of the books I wish to read are centuries old manuals written in German (e.g. by Turk, Adlung, Kerner, Wiedeburg, Kittel) for which there is either no English translation or, if there is, it is prohibitively expensive or even long out of print. But because I can easily read the German text in the original Gothic type I am able to gain access to many of these works which have been scanned and are freely available because they are out of copyright. As far as I have been able to ascertain, there is no technological process which will enable a computer easily, quickly and cheaply to recognise, transcribe and translate correctly the vast body of works, especially in German, that survive and would greatly inform the debates that have raged over past decades regarding historically informed performance. Which brings me to the question of sheet music. For several years I have found it far more convenient to store music I wish to play on my iPad. I use it nearly all the time for practice: it is a marvellous way to annotate scores, prepare different versions for different organs, and even use it for performance. Yet the process of obtaining the scores in digital format is often extremely time-consuming and expensive. Yes, there are tens of thousands of scores available on IMSLP. But it is virtually impossible to obtain the most up-to-date scores in digital format. Anyone who wants to do that has first to buy the paper version, and then spend hours and hours laboriously scanning it into a computer, a process which is in itself illegal. Why is there no Kindle equivalent for music? The present situation is actually encouraging thousands of amateur musicians to rely on old editions they can download free, but which do not reflect the painstaking scholarship which has gone into preparing critical editions of the music of past centuries. The truth seems to be that human failings are standing in the way of technological progress. Of course, publishing houses need to make a profit and composers need to be paid for their work. But I cannot help thinking that we have built the academic equivalent of Trump’s wall with Mexico, to the detriment of scholars and performers alike. Why can’t publishers come up with a technological solution which will allow the widest possible access to books and music at reasonable cost, whilst still protecting their intellectual property? But I suppose if no-one can can come up with a technological solution to the Irish backstop, that’s probably a silly question!
  17. Having looked at the numerous photos of the organ on the Klais site, my own view is that, as far as the cases are concerned, they have created a thing of great beauty that blends extremely well with the building. These things are, of course, a matter of personal taste. I do feel the touch screens may be problematic, however. The first problem is that every screen is different, so you can never be certain where anything is. Secondly, my experience on my own home setup is that you can never be completely sure when you hit the screen at speed that it will behave as you want it to. Sometimes nothing happens, sometimes you just miss what you wanted to hit, and sometimes the tiny delay leads you to involuntarily repeating the action, which can result in undoing what you just did! I think this is probably because a touch screen is two dimensional. Maybe these things will only work satisfactorily when touch screens are replaced by holograms, giving the impression that one is physically pulling or pushing on a real stop. Perhaps the answer here is virtual reality and organists in the future will need to wear one of those virtual reality masks whilst playing the organ! God help us!
  18. I’ve spent countless hours over the last few years reading the debates over various aspects of historically informed performance which have “raged’ in the musical world. I say ‘raged’ because these debates are probably limited to a very tiny part of what is already, for most people, a niche market within a niche market. What strikes me more than anything about these debates is that they quickly become heated, with representatives on either side even resorting, to put it mildly, to intemperate language. These debates often seem more indicative of human nature generally, and aspects of our own era rather than those of the past. A good example is that of the ‘controversy’ over so-called OVPP (one voice per part) performance of choral works. Anyone looking at the Bach Cantatas website will be amazed at the hundreds of thousands of words expended attacking or defending either side of this debate. Whilst fascinating in its own right, I have concluded that Bach and his contemporaries would probably be astonished if they could return today and witness these kinds of controversies. OK, scholars discover that Bach’s cantatas and other works appear to have been performed with no more than one singer performing each part, including choruses, with perhaps another 4 ripieno singers occasionally reinforcing them. Hardly surprising if that’s all the singers who were available. Bach had to make do with the resources provided. He was, after all, an eminently practical musician. In addition, choruses (if you exclude the final chorale) made up only a small part of most cantatas. Why would courts and churches employ or educate large numbers of singers at great expense if they only performed for a few minutes each week? What Bach really thought about the matter we will never know (even the numbers he put forwarded in the famous Entwurf are hotly debated over). The problem is that the assumption is made that the concerns of musicians in the past were the same of those of musicians today. The world generally, including the musical world, is utterly different. In the 18th century it was common practice to transfer (and alter!) music written for one instrument or instruments to (an-)other(s), as was the case with Bach’s organ concertos. To this day there seems to be no agreement about which instrument Bach wrote The Art of Fugue for. A reading of Charles Burney’s Commemoration of Handel indicates that 18th century musicians and music lovers were both able and willing to organise huge bodies of orchestral players and singers very skillfully in performances of the Messiah and were thrilled by the results. (The comments Burney makes about how well tuned the instruments were also makes interesting reading). When Bach was organising his weekly cantata performances, he was faced by such concerns as: Would there be enough time to copy the parts? Would the singers and players on hand be up to the job (boys who sang wrong notes had to pay a fine)? Would the stove next to the organ be lit? Was there enough time to transpose the organ part (because of Chorton) and figure it? Would the music be a fitting reflection of the day’s Bible readings? But our concerns are: Will there be enough people in the audience? Will the instruments and tunings be historically informed? Will the media reviews be good? Debates about OVPP, historical fingerings, instruments and tunings may be fascinating for some. But in the end, music and musical performance are a matter of taste and personal preference. Unequal temperament may be fascinating to some, but my personal preference is for equal temperament (to put it mildly). It doesn’t matter how much evidence is presented to me about pure and impure intervals, beats and so on. I just don’t like it. I’ve listened to, and played, many instruments with unequal temperament, and I have found the experience most unpleasant. I’m very sorry about that, but it’s how it is. As was the case in the 18th century, I’m much more interested in the Affekt of the music and whether or how it moves me.
  19. Am I the only member of this Forum who does not feel any enthusiasm for unequal temperament? I’m afraid I can’t work up great excitement for pure thirds and fifths. It seems to me that Bach regarded well tempered tuning as a great improvement over what had gone before ((I know it may not be quite the same as equal temperament). And I’ve never been able to understand how it relates to the intervals produced by other instruments, such as strings, or wind, the tuning of which is not fixed, as well as by voices. I’d be fascinated to see some statistical research into the precise intervals sung by choirs performing unaccompanied, say, a motet by Palestrina.
  20. Many thanks for these replies. I’m coming to the view that I will need to experiment a little during rehearsals with the accompaniment in order to find the best arrangement before I finalise it on paper. In the meantime I have come across Herbert F. Ellingford’s “The Art of Transcribing for the Organ” (1922) in which the following advice appears on page 3: “Avoid rapid repetitions either of single or double notes. These repetitions may often be technically or mechanically possible at a great speed on an organ but they can never sound really well, because at the high speed one note will run into the other, and this merging of one sound into the next, results in the effect of one continuous sound, or at best, a sustained wobble!”
  21. Thanks for that. MuseScore has a fairly straightforward system for “imploding” a four voice open score into a two stave closed score without text and I’ve done that. I want the organ to accompany the voices with the same note pitches throughout, but because there’s a lot of repetition of chords on different syllables (e.g, “glo-ri-fi-ca-......”) I feel it may not sound right to simply repeat the chords on the organ. A glance at, say, bars 72-3 of Stanford’s Te Deum in Bb shows a sustained chord on the organ for two bars whilst the voices repeat the same notes, but the accompaniment is generally an independent one. I suppose I could use trial and error during rehearsal with the choir, but I was wondering if there are any conventions in this case for sustaining on the organ chords which are repeated in the voices.
  22. I’ve recently been writing an SATB setting of the ordinary of the mass in Latin. It’s in a fairly popular style and homophonic throughout. Using MuseScore I’ve reduced the open to closed score for rehearsal purposes, but I really want the organ to accompany the choir during performance. Not ever having done this before, I wondered if members could give me some pointers as to how to adapt the vocal score reduction for accompaniment. I don’t want a different accompaniment, but there are many repeated chords for the choir and I’m wondering what is the best way to deal with that - for example I’ve experimented with sustaining the bass in the pedal and repeating other parts in the manuals, but I’d be grateful for any advice.
  23. It seems to be possible these days to have single copies of your book printed in hardback or paperback form from your digital file at a surprisingly reasonable price. Many books ordered online these days are dealt with in this way in any case. There are companies on the internet that will do this for you. Once your book is ready for publication, you could ask people who want a hard copy to pay upfront for the book and postage and packing, then, when you have received payment, order the book and send it to them.
  24. We always have to remember that the pipe organ is very much a niche market within a niche market (classical music). Even many church goers who regularly hear the organ played have never seen it close up, have no idea how it works or know that organists play with their feet. Members of the clergy are not necessarily interested in organs and organ music - why should they be? Pipe organs have suffered over the centuries from being smashed up by religious fanatics, atheists (French Revolution), anarchists (Spanish Civil War), or their activity has been restricted when the theology of church music changed (Tra Le Sollicitudini) and alternatim masses were banned. The Orthodox Church does not allow musical instruments at all. Perhaps the best way to view pipe organ building (if you want to remain positive) is like the bespoke, handmade shoe or suit industries. You can always get them but they’ll cost you many hundreds or thousands of pounds. They’ll always be a demand, but only a limited one. I am constantly surprised at just how many new organs are still commissioned and installed in churches and elsewhere, here and abroad. Somehow, in spite of the sheer incompetence of many churches in managing and investing their funds, huge sums are stll found for new organs or to rebuild existing ones. Probably the greatest threat to pipe organs is fashion. The argument about pipe organs lasting 100 years is almost beside the point, since many new today will probably fail to impress in 30 years time and be subject to all kinds of alteration. It is impossible to predict where churches and organs will be in 100 years time - if the world hasn’t been blown to smithereens! The latest sampling techniques make it possible to have a range of highly realistic recordings of organs installed in your computer and play them back in your home. This is great for practising, (or even making your own digital recordings), but we should never forget that these are samples of real pipe organs and would not be possible without them. The human brain needs constant stimulation and change, and these factors, together with fashion, will ensure that digital organs will never replace good, well maintained pipe organs. On the contrary, the availability of relatively cheap digital organs for practice has at last made it possible for new students to learn and practise the organ in their own homes. Nothing, but nothing in the world of music however, can compare with the experience of playing, say Widor or Vierne, on great Cavaillé Coll organs in Paris as I did on an organ course earlier this summer. Can anyone really imagine that a digital organ could be built that could ever come anywhere near the glorious sound of the organ in Saint Sulpice?
  25. “As part of our wider support for scholarship and academic work, The Royal College of Organists is responsible for the day-to-day management of the National Pipe Organ Register.” https://www.rco.org.uk/npor.php
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