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  1. At present there are no satisfactory substitutes for 32’ and 64’organ pipes, but they require a lot of space and a lot of money. Folo Paril recently suggested a new approach. It is well known that inhaling helium (now considered risky) raises the pitch of the voice. It follows that heavier gases will produce lower pitches from physical systems of identical size. He proposes organ pipes sounding in atmospheres of Xenon or Sulfur Hexafluoride. The speed of sound in air is 343m/s, in Xenon it is 169m/s and in SF6 it is 134m/s. He is currently researching other gases with even lower speeds of sound. Therefore substantially smaller pipes will be sufficient for the lower frequencies. He suggests that the 32’ and 64’ terminology should be retained, even though the pipes will no longer be those physical lengths. It is unreasonable to expect the audience to breath unusual gases, so the bass organ chambers will be enclosed in solid surrounds with fronts of gas-tight but acoustically transparent membranes. As the chambers will be be sealed, the gas can be recirculated through the blower. The heat gained by compression in the blower will be lost as the gas expands through the pipes, so low-energy thermal controllers will be sufficient to match the temperature in the enclosure to the surrounding air, avoiding mismatches of pitch. Mr Paril is prepared to licence his technology to builders, subject to the usual agreements on commercial confidentiality and the payment of large sums of money.
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